ABA Membership NOW DUE Why Become a Member? As a member you have a direct say about the future of the industry and direct access to our organisation. The ABA has undertaken industry-wide consultation to develop an Industry Strategic Plan which establishes funding priorities for the industry’s R&D and marketing programs. We aim to support our rapidly increasing industry by encouraging effective communication and co-operation between industry members. The ABA aims to keep members informed through a range of activities including: • Presentation of the Annual Almond Industry Conference. • Distribution of the ABA’s quarterly newsletter “In a Nutshell” • Regular field days and regional meetings • Technical articles and ABA news in the “Australian Nutgrower” Journal • Collection and distribution of industry statistics • Access to regularly updated information via the ABA website To join the ABA please visit our website and download a membership form, or contact our office on 08 8582 2055 or email email@example.com
Circulation: With a circulation of more than 650 and readership of over 2000 the ‘In A Nutshell’ newsletter is available to the general public and interested parties via the Almond Board of Australian website www.australianalmonds.com.au, and high quality printed copies distributed to: Almond Board of Australia members, industry contacts within Australia and overseas, nut producing, distributing and marketing companies.
In a Nutshell The Almond Board of Australia is the peak industry body representing the interest of almond growers, processors and marketers in Australia in matters of national importance including regulation, legislation, marketing research and development. In a Nutshell is published quarterly by the ABA to bring news to all industry contacts and members. Advertising/Editorial The Almond Board of Australia (ABA) acknowledges contributions made by private enterprise through placement of advertisements in this publication. Any advertising and/or editorial supplied to this publication does not necessarily reflect the views of the ABA and unless otherwise specified,
Publisher Almond Board of Australia 9 William Street, PO Box 2246 BERRI SA 5343 t +61 8 8582 2055 e firstname.lastname@example.org w www.australianalmonds.com.au Some of these projects were facilitated by HAL in partnership with the Almond Board of Australia. They were funded by the R&D levy and/or voluntary contributions from industry. The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.
no products and/or services are endorsed by this organisation.
EXECUTIV E update
The recently agreed bilateral free trade agreements between Australia and Korea and Australia and Japan will assist our almond industry by removing tariffs of 8% and 2.4% respectively. This will further the almond industry’s impressive development of export markets which during our last marketing year (March 2013 to February 2014), increased 57% in tonnage whilst the value of exports as recorded by the Australian Bureau of Statistics rose from $156million to $370 million. Australian marketers made sales to 49 countries with India topping the list with export sales of $101 million. The Australian almond industry is the first to export product worth more than $300 million in a calendar year. The domestic market continued to grow albeit slower than the previous year but the 20% gain of the previous year was consolidated with a further increase of 3%. In total, the marketers of Australian almonds made sales in excess of $500 million. During the year, the average monthly export price for Australian almonds rose from $5.20 in February 2013 to $8.12 in February 2014. The global sales volumes were constrained by the availability of almonds. This had been predicted based on the growth history in sales and the tailing off of plantings in percentage terms in the USA and Australia over the past few years. Effectively, the global market has increased
on average by more than the current size of the Australian industry each year for the past decade. The severe drought situation facing the Californian central valley has been a key driver of the increased world prices. The Australian return from export sales has also benefited from the lower Australian dollar. Looking to the year ahead, the marketing year will start with prices higher than at the same time last year. The crop estimate is for a smaller crop than in 2013. 65,000 tonnes is the current estimate. With some carryover, the available supply of Australian almonds will be slightly down compared to last year. Despite this, the value of sales by the Australian industry is still likely to grow given the higher world price and
of virus tested, true to type material have jumped and equate to an orchard area of 1,000 hectares. Australia is now clearly the second largest producer of almonds with the 2013 and 2014 crops being significantly larger than those grown in Spain. The Australian crop is moving towards 90,000 tonnes that we believe is the productive capacity of current orchard plantings once trees are mature. The ABA will soon be holding regional meetings and we look forward to seeing many industry members in attendance to be part of a discussion on the way forward for the industry in terms of market development, new technology and an improved operating environment.
the slightly lower Californian crop already predicted due to drought. The US drought situation has also created renewed interest from overseas in investing in established Australian almond orchards and
in developing new plantings. There has also been interest from Australian investors and growers looking to exit unprofitable horticultural crops. The Budwood sales
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16th Australian Almond Conference
A A C 2 0 1 4
Stamford Grand Hotel, Glenelg, South Australia October 28-30, 2014
through to processing and onto the marketing of our largest ever almond crop. We look forward to announcing our international speaker line-up in the coming months. A ‘must attend’ event on the industry calendar, this Conference is the largest gathering of almond industry representatives in Australia. It brings together over 200 Australian and international delegates, with participants including growers, processors, marketers, researchers, industry suppliers and other interested persons. The Australian almond industry has come a long way in a short period of time. With a forecast record crop of 78,600 in 2014, almonds are Australia’s fastest growing horticultural industry, servicing an expanding domestic market and major export markets in India, Europe, Japan, Hong Kong, New Zealand and the Middle East. The AAC has become renowned for the value it adds to our industry and I can assure you that our 2014 event will carry on this fine tradition. For more information on this year’s Australian Almond Conference please contact the ABA Office on +61 8 85822055 or email email@example.com
Almonds are now Australia’s largest horticultural export industry, and we have surpassed Spain to become the second largest global producer of almonds, behind the United States. We are pleased to announce that the 15th Annual Australian Almond Conference (AAC), from 28th to 30th October 2014 will be held at the Stamford Grand Hotel in Glenelg, with the Gala Dinner to be held at the Morphettville Racecourse. This year’s Conference will include presentations by respected researchers and experts focussing on the entire supply chain from both a domestic and an international perspective. Speakers will address issues of industry interest; from pollination to promotion and product quality to price prediction. The congress is the one event attended by everyone in our industry – from the growers who do the hard yards on our farms to the many industry partners who continue to help us maintain our position as Australia’s number one horticulture export industry. It is also a time when we hear from, as an industry, with leaders and decision makers from Government and across the broader agriculture sector. Growers and delegates will go away with, not only a thorough understanding of the industry’s research activities but also the wide ranging efforts to further develop our industry; from production
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Carpophilus Beetle - Another Insect Eating Your Profits?
don’t have C. davidsoni . Understanding the population dynamics in Australian almond orchards would go a long way towards understanding what’s driving their presence. Ben Brown - Industry Development Manager
The Australian almond industry increased significantly during the 2000s with most of this acreage now bearing and near maturity. Whilst we commonly discuss this feature in a positive light it appears the large footprint we now have isn’t without its challenges. For those who attended the Activated Almonds R&D Forum in June 2013 or downloaded the presentations from our website, would remember for probably the first time being alerted to a potential new pest of almonds - Carpophilus beetle (Figure 1). This pest was detected by David Madge and the DEPI Victoria research team while undertaking the industry’s carob moth (Figure 1) R&D project. This concern has grown through the 2013/14 season with the Almond Board of Australia (ABA) receiving contact from several concerned growers and processors that its presence and kernel damage has increased, to the extent it is sometimes more damaging than carob moth. What’s particularly worrying is the beetle doesn’t discriminate between almond varieties. For those who have been involved in horticulture for a while would have definitely heard about carpophilus beetle but only as a serious pest of stone fruit, where in Australia crop losses of up to 30% can occur. As an aside, carpophilus beetles are also a serious pest of stone fruit in New Zealand, Middle East and USA. Biology and Behaviour At least 12 species of carpophilus beetle occur in Australia with C. davidsoni (Figure 2), C. hemipterus (Figure 2), and C. mutilates (Figure 2) causing the greatest economic damage in ripening stone fruit. C. davidsoni is native to Australia whereas the other two species are cosmopolitan. It’s worth highlighting C. davidsoni is the common species caught in Australian stone fruit orchards and is often first on the scene preferring fruit that is in its early stages of ripening. C. hemipterus normally arrives on the scene once the fruit begins to rot and drops to the ground. This may explain why carpophilus beetle management is more of a concern in Australian stone fruit orchards compared to Californian orchards where they
Figure 1: Carpophilus beetle (Carpophilus davidsoni) (top) and carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) (bottom) causing almond damage (photos courtesy of David Madge, DEPI)
Figure 2: C. davidsoni (left), C. hemipterus (middle) and C. mutilates (right) Images courtesy: Pest and Diseases Image Library, Bugwood.org
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Carpophilus are highly active pests that have several generations per year with females laying an average of 1,071 eggs, with eggs hatching in 1-4 days, and larval development taking 4-14 days. They are also strong fliers with distances greater than 4km achieved. Carpophilus are very resilient pests and can hibernate as mature larvae, pupae and adults. Like most pests, carpophilus is affected by environmental conditions with relative humidity less than 40% reducing larvae and egg laying; consequently, dry conditions in the previous autumn and winter reduce spring populations. One could infer the wet seasons of 2010/11 and 2011/12 could still be causing us issues. A quick review of the weather conditions also indicates the relative humidity for the 2013/14 season was higher than the 2012/13 season, particularly when comparing the spring period. This may explain why we have seen more pest pressure this season in both almonds and stone fruit. The host range of carpophilus is also extensive and broadening, where in recent years they have become significant pests of new crops with substantial crop losses in cherries and strawberries. Whilst it is not known why carpophilus has become attracted to almonds, it’s thought the volatiles from ripening or rotting (mummies) fruit are likely to play a role, just as it does in stone fruit. It should be remembered almonds are from the same genus (i.e. Prunus ) as peaches, apricots, cherries, etc. Other than cause physical damage and rapid breakdown to stone fruit, carpophilus also can cause indirect damage by serving as a vector of brown rot inoculum ( Monilinia spp .), which frequently develops at the sites of beetle entry. In almonds, there have been no reports of almonds affected by Monilinia spp . or alternatively Aspergillus spp . (aflatoxin producing) fungal spores, but the physical damage has been quite severe. These relationships will need to be watched carefully. What is concerning with the behaviour of carpophilus is they penetrate and burrow into the kernel and reside there for some time (Figure 3), and don’t just feed on the surface as carob moth tend to. This penetrating behaviour and visual presence later in the supply chain makes the product redundant and even with further processing can’t be salvaged. The only market left is oil and for those growers that aren’t aware this price is the lowest of the lows attracting less than $0.80/kg. Management Options Like the management of most pests, success is achieved with an integrated approach. Orchard hygiene Unfortunately or fortunately, depending on how you look at it, successful management of carpophilus is likely to be associated with good orchard hygiene, aka reduction in mummy numbers. Unfortunately, mummy reduction is easier said than done as it is a major flaw of our most prominent variety Nonpareil. Fortunately, mummies are the source of many other problems (e.g. hull rot inoculum, Aspergillus inoculum, and carob moth), so every effort invested in reducing mummy numbers should pay dividends. It’s worth highlighting mummy reduction is just not a matter of reducing over wintering fruit by employing effective harvesting or re-shaking practices, but to also employ a preventative approach of avoiding hull rot and “rotting fruit”. It cannot be stressed enough that mummy reduction and orchard hygiene is a non-negotiable in the successful management of an almond orchard. Monitor It will be important to identify high risk blocks from a past history of damage. This history is achieved two ways:
Figure 3: Carpophilus beetle burrowing into kernels
Active monitoring in-season. Establish a trapping grid, check traps weekly, identify species, record and plot results, and analyse trends. Monitoring can be undertaken very quickly and cheaply using green funnel traps hung at eye level inside the orchard, and an attractant supplied by Insect Management Services or manufactured using the following recipe: 1. Dissolve 1g of dry yeast in 200ml of 100% apple juice. • Absorb mixture into 10g of polyacrylamide granules (e.g. Yates Water Crystals). • Wait an hour to allow juice to be absorbed fully. • Place resultant gel in a 300ml plastic container and cover with a fine mosquito mesh secured with a rubber band to keep beetles out of the gel container. • Place the gel container in the bottom of funnel trap. • Place a 1cm 2 piece of a household insecticide strip (i.e. dichlorvos) inside but near the top of the trap. The attractant is to be replaced approximately every two weeks, and to measure the beetle population use a 50ml measuring cylinder (beetle no. = 200 x (vol (ml) – 0.18). Please contact state government chemical use laws regarding the use of this system.
Chemical control Chemical control of carpophilus beetle in stone fruit is often undertaken using bifenthrin, a pyrethroid, but it’s not registered for use in almonds. Despite it being available for use by Victorian almond growers due to their off-label use laws, it is not recommended. Bifenthrin commonly results in suppression but not control of beetle numbers as it only relies on contact and ingestion. The burrowing behaviour within a kernel protected by a husk and shell, and new incoming beetle flights will be difficult if not impossible to treat. In addition, bifenthrin is also a broad spectrum insecticide that is very detrimental to many beneficial insecticides and results in two-spot mite flare-ups that require further chemical control that is also very expensive. If uncontrolled, two-spot mites will cause in-season defoliation and many flow-on effects as a result. The flow- on effects of in-season defoliation should be fresh in everyone’s mind following the widespread rust event during the 2010/11 season. In addition to the issues raised above, there is no bifenthrin MRL on almonds sold on the Australian market. Alternative chemicals for the control of carpophilus beetle will be investigated by the ABA. References Hossain, M.S. et al. 2009. Investigation of an area wide approach to control carpophilus beetle in stone fruit. HAL Project SF05006/SF05022. Williams D.G. 2013. Carpophilus beetles, PowerPoint presentation, Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria.
The aggregation pheromone and co- attractant are to be placed every 2 weeks and ensure the aggregation pheromone and co-attractant are not disposed in the block. Warning: It is not recommended to monitor populations with the attract and kill option as it includes an aggregation pheromone that could see populations drawn into the monitored block or property thereby increasing the pest pressure. Research has not been completed to ascertain the attractive radius of the pheromone. The deployment of this system in almond orchards has not been researched and registered for use, and despite it not being a treatment applied to the tree or crop it still requires APVMA registration for use in almonds. The only exception are Victorian growers who could still use it due to their off-label chemical use laws, but its precise use pattern in almonds is not known. Victorian growers are to contact the DEPI Chemical Standards Officer for clarification around off-label use. The ABA is currently applying for a Minor Use Permit (MUP) with APVMA to allow the use of the A&K by all states in the 2014/15 season. Results of this will be known in the next few months. It is worth highlighting the research trials showed the A&K system gave better control of damage and beetle numbers than insecticide treatments.
2. Feedback from your processor/marketer. This precise trace back ability is not a strong point in many almond orchards as we bulk store on-farm by variety and don’t segregate by block like most soft fruit industries. As the old adage says, “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it”. This trace back ability needs to become a feature of the industry going forward and will be strongly promoted when we roll out our OrchardNet project next season. Please contact Brett Rosenzweig, Industry Development Officer to learn more about this project. Attract and kill DEPI Victoria has researched and developed an attract and kill (A&K) system that has recently become commercialised for the stone fruit industry. The system uses a large funnel trap hung on a star picket outside of the block and relies upon a synergy between an aggregation pheromone, a synthetic food-volatile based co-attractant, and a toxicant in the funnel trap to kill the entering beetles (Figure 4). The system is designed to draw beetles out of the block, not to monitor the population. The A&K stations in stone fruit orchards are placed upwind on the outside of the block being protected and deployed approximately 6 weeks prior to the fruit ripening at stocking rates of approximately 2-3 traps per hectare and left in the block for an additional 2 weeks after harvest. The traps are deployed before fruit ripens, to avoid competition with the volatiles from the ripening fruit.
Figure 4: Attract and kill system (photos courtesy of Insect Management Services)
Experts come together to consider pesticide risks to honey bees
A symposium held in Canberra on 9 April 2014 concluded that neonicotinoids, a newer
encourage more research and surveillance on the effects of pesticides on bees in Australia.”
class of insecticide commonly used to
The APVMA report acknowledges that
control insect pests in crops, are unlikely to be presenting any greater threat to honey bees and crop pollination than other pesticides which have been in use for many years. The symposium, organised by Plant Health Australia (PHA), the not-for-profit
incidents of beekeepers losing bee colonies as a result of insecticide do occur, but these can be minimised with proper use and effective communication between the farmer and the beekeeper. The report concludes that overall, the introduction
of neonicotinoids has probably reduced risks to the environment from the application of insecticides. Rod Turner, PHA’s General Manager of Risk Management, said that the meeting was a positive step towards better understanding how honey bee activities and chemical control of insect pests can occur side-by-side, with correct use and application. “It’s good news that Australian farmers can use neonicotinoid pesticides when they need to control pests affecting crops,” Mr Turner said. “It was important to sit down with all affected parties and assess the scientific evidence.” Mr Turner added, “Australia has one of the healthiest bee populations in the world and the research indicates that with sensible measures, we will be able to keep them healthy and benefit from their honey making and pollination services.” PHA will now work with the Australian Honey Bee Industry Council (AHBIC), the APVMA, and plant industries to devise measures with the focus on ensuring the sustainability of honey bees in Australia. The APVMA report, Neonicotinoids and the health of honey bees in Australia , is available on the APVMA website . [apvma.gov.au/news_media/chemicals/bee_and_ neonicotinoids.php] For more information, contact Cathy Frazer on 0423 000963 or at email@example.com Plant Health Australia (PHA) is the national coordinator of the government-industry partnership for plant biosecurity in Australia. As a not-for-profit company, PHA services the needs of its Members and independently advocates on behalf of the national plant biosecurity system. PHA’s efforts help minimise plant pest impacts, enhance Australia’s plant health status, assist trade, safeguard the livelihood of producers, preserve environmental health and amenity, and support the sustainability and profitability of plant industries and the communities that rely upon them. www.planthealthaustralia . com.au
coordinators of the plant biosecurity partnership in Australia, brought together 90 representatives from government agencies, the honey bee industry, crop industries that rely on honey bees for pollination, and researchers, to examine information gathered globally on the effects of neonicotinoids on insect pollinators. The meeting was sponsored by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA), the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC), and the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC). It was agreed that neonicotinoids can adversely impact bee populations if used incorrectly, the same as other pesticides (including insecticides and fungicides), but that with sensible safeguards in place the chemicals can still be used to control pests on crops. Dr Les Davies, Chief Regulatory Scientist from APVMA, described the findings from a recently-published APVMA summary report looking at the possible risks to bees arising from the various uses of the neonicotinoid insecticides in Australia. “Having reviewed information collected from around the world over the past few decades, it’s clear that it’s not possible to attribute bee population declines in some parts of the world to the introduction of the neonicotinoid insecticides”, Dr Davies said. “Current scientific opinion is that these pollinator declines are likely to be caused by multiple interacting pressures which may include habitat loss and disappearance of floral resources, honeybee nutrition, climate change, bee pests and pathogens, miticides and other chemicals intentionally used in hives and bee husbandry practices, as well as agricultural pesticides. To reduce the risks from pesticide use we need to ensure that a range of regulatory, industry stewardship and educational measures are in place.” Dr Davies added, “Of course, given the importance of bees to agriculture and ecosystems, we will continue to
Brett Rosenzweig - Industry Development Officer In The Orchard
From this you can calculate whether the current fertigation schedule is adequate to meet crop removal needs. From the example in Table 1, 145kg of actual nitrogen was removed from the orchard in the form of the almond crop. Assuming very little nitrogen is stored in the soil and there are no cover crops planted to fix nitrogen, it would be a reasonable conclusion to state that a minimum of 145kg/ha of actual nitrogen needs to be applied the following season to replace what has been removed by the crop. Unfortunately it’s not that simple! There must be allowances made for fertiliser losses during application e.g. leaching, nitrification and nutrients being stored in the woody structures of the tree or being ‘locked up’ in the soil. Again another assumption is made that an extra 25% is needed on top of the crop removal to meet the trees nutrient needs taking into account losses and long term storage. The interaction between nutrient uptake and interactions between the soil, roots and surrounding environment is naturally very complex. The crop removal model for determining a fertiliser budget is a good starting point but should be backed up with regular soil sampling or solution sampling to ensure excess fertiliser is not being applied or leached. Calculating a fertiliser program Once you have determined how much nutrient is removed with the crop and made allowances for losses in application etc., how do you work out how many bags of fertiliser to apply? The most common types of fertiliser used in almonds are shown in Table 2. Simple calculations are made by entering the amount of kilograms of each fertiliser product by the percentage of nutrient in the product i.e. 43kg of MAP contains 11 units of phosphorus (43kg x 26%). The same can be done for the other fertiliser products to calculate the total amount of nutrient applied with the goal being to apply the same as the crop removal amount. The fertiliser program shown in Table 2 is very simplistic and other factors need to be taken into account. Is the soil temperature above 18 o C so urea or UAN can be applied? (Soil temperature needs to be above 18 o C so that it will break down into suitable forms the tree can use). Which form of nitrate (potassium nitrate or ammonium nitrate) is the cheapest fertiliser to use? In the next issue of In The Orchard, we’ll delve into how to leaf sample in October as a method of determining if the spring fertiliser program needs amending. The advantage of sampling in October is management decisions can be made proactively if the spring fertiliser program needs changing rather than reactively after January leaf sampling.
In this edition of In the Orchard, I would like to focus on post- harvest sampling of almonds to determine your crop nutrient removal status. Sampling whole fruit at harvest is a good guide to determine the base level of nutrition required for the next season. It follows a basic principle that the amount of nutrients that are removed in the form of the crop i.e. hulls, shell and kernel, should be replaced the following season to maintain equilibrium. This naturally ignores any soil reserves of nutrients that may be available for uptake and allowances must be made for losses in application and nutrients stored in the tree. Sampling How do you sample fruit to determine your crop removal status? Normally it is best to take samples immediately prior to harvest from the same trees you conduct leaf sampling from. You don’t leaf sample? A single leaf sample analysis costs only $70 (approximate, please consult your local lab or consultant) and should be conducted every year in January to gain a complete understanding of the orchard’s nutritional balance. Twenty trees should be selected in a representative manner across a patch. The patch could be a valve unit, an irrigation shift or the entire block if the property is small. Either way the area sampled should be representative e.g. don’t sample a 1Ha area with a known drainage problem when the rest of the property is 20Ha of free draining soil. Select trees that are easy to sample year after year otherwise you’ll be tempted not to regularly sample because it will become too much of a chore. If you can easily sample diagonally across a patch, this method is best. If you have to fight your way through the canopy then choose representative rows within the patch to sample. Tag both the trees and the rows that you sample from so you can come back to them year after year. Repeatability is very important when it comes to nutrition sampling. In order to detect nutritional changes in the orchard it is critical to be using the same trees each year for sampling. To sample for crop nutrient removal pick four fruit from each of your twenty selected trees to get a total of one hundred fruit per sample. Try to randomly select the fruit from all parts of the canopy, not just a small section on one branch! Separate the fruit into its three components i.e. hull, shell and kernel; making sure there are no blank or aborted kernels. Send the three samples to a lab requesting wet and dry weights along with a full analysis including boron. Results When the results of fruit sampling are received, they can be entered into Table 1. The Nutrient Removal Analysis table can be found in the irrigation and nutrition spreadsheet which can be downloaded from the Almond Board of Australia website. When the actual kernel yield for the patch is entered into the table along with the wet and dry weights of the three samples, the amount of nutrients is calculated for each of the components culminating with a total for each element. A quick point of clarification, wet weight in Table 1 refers to the weight of the crop at harvest i.e. the weight of the three samples and the kg/ha from your delivery advice. Dry weight refers to the weight of the samples after they have been dried in an oven at the lab. All leaf/ fruit/soil samples are commonly oven dried before analysis.
For further information contact: Brett Rosenzweig, Industry Development Officer Almond Board of Australia P 08 8582 2055 or 0429 837 137 E: firstname.lastname@example.org
Forum 2014 In late 2012 social media was abuzz over “Activated Almonds”, leading to a 20% increase in domestic consumption for the marketing year. What drove this media frenzy? How can the Australian almond industry use this to our advantage? And most importantly, how can we maintain supply of high quality, food safe almond products into the future? collaborating researchers take part in a R&D forum to present the latest updates on almond projects. On 12 June 2013, the inaugural ‘Activated Almond Research Forum’ was held, with an open invitation to all industry stakeholders to attend. The Forum was a great success with over 75 industry stakeholders attending. The day enabled industry to converse with researchers, networking, and provided an ideal opportunity for collaboration and conversations across the supply chain and between researchers and industry. As a consequence of last year’s success we will hold the event annually and invite members and levy payers to attend the ‘2014 Activated Almonds R&D Forum’. When? 10.00am (CST), Wednesday, June 18 th 2014 Where? McCormick Centre, Ral Ral Avenue, Renmark RVSP: Debbie McMahon at the ABA office by Tuesday, June 10 th Every autumn Australian almond industry committees and
TOTAL Kernel N kg removed / ha 144.76 32.53 7.40 104.83 kg removed / ha 8.52 7.29 0.70 0.53 K kg removed / ha 177.07 149.19 27.35 0.53 Ca kg removed / ha 11.74 8.97 2.23 0.53 Mg kg removed / ha 5.57 4.49 0.56 0.53 Na kg removed / ha 0.97 0.56 0.14 0.26 kg removed / ha 4.86 3.93 0.14 0.79 Zn kg removed / ha 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.00 Mn kg removed / ha 0.12 0.10 0.01 0.00 Fe kg removed / ha 0.76 0.69 0.07 0.00 Cu kg removed / ha 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 B kg removed / ha 0.36 0.31 0.05 0.00 kg removed / ha 1.93 1.12 0.28 0.53 Husk Shell P Cl S
20 dried dates 1 teaspoon vanilla bean essence 2 tablespoons water 6 tablespoons desiccated coconut Instructions Pulse almonds in a processor until finely ground. Add dates and pulse again until combined. Add vanilla and water and pulse again until mixed thoroughly. Using your hands form the mixture into 9 firm balls. Sprinkle the coconut on a small plate and then roll the balls into the coconut. Store in an air-tight container in the fridge.
For more delicious recipes visit: www.amazingalmonds.com.au