Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd ABN 87 000 226 022391-393 Tooronga Rd, Hawthorn East, Vic. 3123 Technical enquiries: 1800 804 479 email@example.com Basta ® is a registered trademark of the Bayer Group. * When used as directed. BCH0406 www.bayercropscience.com.au
Executive Update Neale Bennett, Chairman & Ross Skinner CEO
Almond Board of Australia Inc.
P + 61 8 8582 2055 F + 61 8 8582 3503
ABN 31 709 079 099
E firstname.lastname@example.org W www.australianalmonds.com.au
9 William Street, PO Box 2246 Berri South Australia 5343
Marketing Matters Joseph Ebbage, Marketing Program Manager
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Australian Almond Conference 2013 Feature
Tailored biosecurity advice for every almond grower just a couple of clicks away Plant Health Australia
Circulation: With a circulation of more than 650 and readership of over 2000 the ‘In A Nutshell’ newsletter is available to the general public and interested parties via the Almond Board of Australian website www.australianalmonds.com.au, and high quality printed copies distributed to: Almond Board of Australia members, industry contacts within Australia and overseas, nut producing, distributing and marketing companies.
Why Become a Member? As a member you have a direct say about the future of the industry and direct access to our organisation. The ABA has undertaken industry-wide consultation to develop an Industry Strategic Plan which establishes funding priorities for the industry’s R&D and marketing programs. We aim to support our rapidly increasing industry by encouraging effective communication and co-operation between industry members. The ABA aims to keep members informed through a range of activities including: • Presentation of the Annual Almond Industry Conference. • Distribution of the ABA’s quarterly newsletter “In a Nutshell” • Regular field days and regional meetings • Technical articles and ABA news in the “Australian Nutgrower” Journal • Collection and distribution of industry statistics • Access to regularly updated information via the ABA website To join the ABA please visit our website and download a membership form, or contact our office on 08 8582 2055 or email email@example.com
In a Nutshell The Almond Board of Australia is the peak industry body representing the interest of almond growers, processors and marketers in Australia in matters of national importance including regulation, legislation, marketing research and development. In a Nutshell is published quarterly by the ABA to bring news to all industry contacts and members. Advertising/Editorial The Almond Board of Australia (ABA) acknowledges contributions made by private enterprise through placement of advertisements in this publication. Any advertising and/or editorial supplied to this publication does not necessarily reflect the views of the ABA and unless otherwise specified,
Editor Jo Pippos
Communications Manager Almond Board of Australia 9 William Street, PO Box 2246 BERRI SA 5343
t +61 8 8582 2055 f +61 8 8582 3503
e firstname.lastname@example.org w www.australianalmonds.com.au
Some of these projects were facilitated by HAL in partnership with the Almond Board of Australia. They were funded by the R&D levy and/or voluntary contributions from industry. The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.
no products and/or services are endorsed by this organisation.
15th Australian Almond Conference Stamford Grand Hotel Glenelg, South Australia October 29-31, 2013 Today’s Challenges Tomorrow’s Success
Early Bird Registration Closes October 4, 2013
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Neale Bennett & Brendan Sidhu
The early estimate of the 2013 crop of 71,600 tonnes has been revised upwards to 78,000 tonnes now that the processors have received all the crop and sufficient has been hulled and shelled to obtain a more accurate indication of kernel crackout as a percentage of received product. In what is turning out to be an excellent season from a crop perspective the news on returns is also positive with strong improvement in the global price during 2013 being further assisted by the falling Australian dollar. Returns to growers per tonne will be the highest they have been for some years which combined with the good yields for 2013 has almond growers thinking positively. The ABA is already witnessing renewed interest in orchard development. With worldwide demand for almonds and nuts in general growing consistently, an increase in plantings is not a matter for concern but will see the industry expand well beyond the $500 million value reached this year. The industry has rapidly changed from one focussed on the domestic market to one where three tonnes are to be sold overseas for every tonne sold in Australia. The first four months of the new marketing year have seen the volume of exports increase 9% whilst the improved global price has the value of those exports rising 59% compared to the same period last year. A further pleasing aspect of the early export sales is the feedback from buyers regarding the excellent quality of our new season product. The Californian industry is in the midst of their 2013 harvest and it appears they have managed their orchards very well during a period of short water allocations to achieve yields similar to last year. The US, being 80% of world almond production is the major influence on world supply. With a similar crop to 2012 it is anticipated the recent gains in the global prices will not significantly alter. The rise in the almond price is being carefully monitored as rapid increases can lead to a deterioration in demand that can be hard to re-establish. With strong prices for many nuts currently existing, almonds are still competitively priced and it is expected will remain a popular nut to include in existing and new products. The ABA domestic market development programs appear to be gaining strong traction with the health messages appearing time and again in food, fitness and health articles and TV segments. The scientific research providing support for almonds as a food with heart, stroke, diabetes and satiety benefits is building continuously.
The new Australian almond crop cycle has begun in spectacular fashion with 30,000 Hectares of orchards blooming during August. Reports from the ABA Grower Directors indicate the 2014 crop has the potential to be a strong one in all producing regions if the bees have done their work well. Improved grower returns on the large 2013 crop means we are able to ensure the new crop receives the required inputs of water, nutrient and sprays to turn the 2014 crop potential into reality in the absence of extreme weather events. With good grower returns on offer as a result of the best global prices for many years the term making hay while the sun shines comes to mind. The Marketing Directors report that the return to high quality product is being recognised in export markets with buyers commenting on the colour and flavour of the 2013 product we have grown. As an industry we have done a good job in very good growing and harvesting conditions. However, as an industry we must move to reduce the risks to producing a high quality product consistently. Managing product moisture is a key. The industry has grown dramatically during the past year with our previous 2012 record crop of 50,000 tonnes being smashed with an additional 28,000 tonnes of kernel being grown this year. The industry has coped well to produce, process and market such a large increase. The industry forecasts for future crops show larger crops still predicted as orchards reach full maturity but this growth should be about an extra 10,000 tonnes over the next few years. With the improved financial performance of the industry it is no surprise that more planting is to be undertaken in the next few years. Budwood orders from the ABA’s virus tested motherplantings have gained momentum after a lull for three years. Early orders of bud material will help the ABA manage supply to meet requirements in addition to the large amount already purchased. Growers should also consider ordering two year old trees rather than rely on spring budded trees which have a narrow window of approximately six weeks during November and December for bud cutting and grafting. It has been a busy but rewarding business year in 2012/13. I invite all industry members to attend the ABA Annual General Meeting and the Almond Conference to be held at the Stamford Grand
in Glenelg commencing with a welcome dinner on the 29th October and concluding on the afternoon of the 31st. Last year’s Conference was a great success and the program this year again includes presenters from Australia and overseas.
The substantial nature of the benefits provides a meaningful message to nutritionists, health professionals , fitness advisers and ultimately the consumer.
Neale Bennett Chairman
Ross Skinner CEO
Marketing Matters Joseph Ebbage Marketing Program Manager
Planning Overview During the last quarter, we have been refining our marketing plans for the 2013- 14 year. Our starting point is to reinforce our core marketing objective, which is to enhance the market environment for all our stakeholders to maximise the sales and profitability of Australian almonds . There are two main components of the Australian almond industry’s marketing program: an export development program that features international trade exhibitions and market access management, the Australian Almond Driver program that aims to drive consumption through health education, retail promotion and consumer research and communication. Our marketing plan is framed by the increasing production levels the Australian almond industry is going to deliver into the global almond market over the next three years: from just under 50,000 tonnes in 2012 to over 85,000 tonnes in 2015. Australian Almond Production 2012 2013 2014 2015 49,585 71,600 80,682 85,019
role of almonds as a key ingredient within the global nut market. During the 12 months to June 2013, 6,761 new food products were launched around the world that included almonds. Peanuts were included in over 9000 products. There is a significant gap between peanuts and almonds and the other tree nuts with walnuts and cashews appearing in 1306 and 916 products respectively.
2012/13 Almond Sales
Total Sales 48,397 100% Trading Program 31,047 64% Driver Program 17,350 36% During the 2013-14 marketing year the ABA will organise exhibitions at the below major international trade expos. Two of these exhibitions are in our key markets of Western Europe and the Middle East-India- North Africa and two exhibitions are in markets with a high potential growth: Russia and Japan. Anuga, Cologne, Germany – serving Western and Eastern Europe. Australian almond sales to this market in 2012-13 were 10,246 tonnes; ProdExpo, Moscow – serving the Russian and Eastern Europe: Australian almond sales to this market in 2012-13 of 261 tonnes; Gulfoods, Dubai, UAE – serving the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia: Australian almond sales to this market in 2012-13 of 13,591 tonnes; Foodex, Japan – serving East Asia and South-East Asia: Australian almond sales of 1920 tonnes to this market in 2012-13. INC Congress meeting in Melbourne The ABA will also monitor and provide feedback on market access issues as well as work collaboratively with the Almond Board of California. Research Insights Innova research reports on new product launches around the world highlight the
Market Categories for Almond NPD in Australia Name
26 24 21 19
Cereal & Energy Bars Snack Nuts & Seeds
7 5 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Baking Ingredients & Mixes
Cakes/Pastries & Sweet Goods
Other Meal Components Milk & Other Dairy Drinks
Dairy Alternative Drinks
Export Market Development
During the 2012-13 marketing year, total sales of Australian almonds were 48,397 tonnes, comprising an export trading program of 31,047 tonnes and the domestic Australian Almond Driver program of 17,350 tonnes.
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There remains a significant opportunity for growth if the 40% of households who buy nuts but not almonds could be converted and if the 40% of households that do buy some almonds, do so more frequently. Growing consumption with healthy almonds During the last three months, we have continued to communicate the key health messages associated with eating a handful of almonds every day. In June, a key feature of our exhibition at the Melbourne Good Food & Wine Show was the research of Dr Sabate, one of the world’s leading medical researchers into the health benefits of nuts and almonds. Another important health message has been the research that found we actually absorb 20% less calories that is stated on the back of almond packets. This is due to new research techniques that are more accurate than the much older methodology that underpins the Nutritional Information Panels that are required to be used for retail packs. This key message of “20% less calories than you think” was also promoted online during June and July. We used three websites: • www.bestrecipes.com.au • www.taste.com.au • www.kidsport.com.au
During the total advertising period of mid-May to mid-August, these pages were served to consumers 5.7 million times with 6,667 people clicking through our www. amazingalmonds.com.au For further information contact: Joseph Ebbage Marketing Program Manager Almond Board of Australia P 0407 543 340 E: email@example.com
Almond New Product Development MAT June 2013 Nut Product Count Peanut 9,007 Almond 6,761 Walnut 1,306 Cashew 916 Pistachio 568 From an Australian perspective, 116 new products were launched in 2012-13 that included almonds which ranks Australia 16th out of the 71 countries registered by Innova. The Nielsen Homescan research indicates that almonds increased its household penetration level to 47%, up from 46.5% last year. From this sample of 10,000 Australian households, almonds have the highest household penetration rate within the nut category, with mixed nuts having a penetration rate of 46.8% and cashews of 44.8%. However, given that 87% of Australian households purchased some nuts during the past year, but only 47% of these purchased almonds, there remains 40% of Australian households who buy nuts, but not almonds. Another key metric from Homescan is the split between single and ‘two or more times’ buyers. Within the almond category, 60.4% of households buy multiple times. This is a higher share than any other of the nut categories. However, 40% of households who buy almonds only do so once a year.
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15th Australian Almond Conference
Stamford Grand Hotel Glenelg, South Australia October 29-31, 2013
Today’s Challenges Tomorrow’s Success
Early Bird Registration Closes
October 4, 2013
Hosted by: The Almond Board of Australia
SUPPORTED by: Horticulture Australia
PLATINUM INDUSTRY SPONSOR: Haifa Australia
Today’s Challenges Tomorrow’s Success 15th Australian Almond Conference Stamford Grand Hotel Glenelg, South Australia October 29-31, 2013
Highlights Largest EVER Trade Show
Join us for the 2013 Australian Almond Conference!
Significant growth in delegate attendance at recent conferences sees us moving to a city venue for the first time to provide more space, easier airport access, and ample on-site accommodation for all. We are pleased to announce that the 14th Annual Australian Almond Conference, from 29th to 31st October 2013 will be held at the Stamford Grand Hotel in Glenelg, South Australia. This year’s Conference will include presentations by respected researchers and experts covering the entire supply chain from both a domestic and an international perspective. Speakers will address issues of industry interest from pollination to promotion and product quality to price prediction. Growers and delegates will go away with, not only a thorough understanding of the industry’s research activities but also the wide ranging efforts to further develop our industry; from production through to processing and onto the marketing of our largest ever almond crop. A ‘must attend’ event on the industry calendar, this Conference is the largest gathering of almond industry representatives in Australia. It brings together over 200 Australian and international delegates, with participants including growers, processors, marketers, researchers, industry suppliers and other interested persons. The Australian almond industry has come a long way in a short period of time. With a forecast record crop of 78,000 in 2013, set to increase to 80,600 tonnes next season, almonds are Australia’s fastest growing horticultural industry, servicing an expanding domestic market and major export markets in India, Europe, Japan, Hong Kong, New Zealand and the Middle East. Almonds are now Australia’s largest horticultural export industry, and we have surpassed Spain to become the second largest global producer of almonds, behind the United States. Australia’s almond crop will reach an industry farm-gate value in excess of $500 million once most of the 8 million trees already planted reach full maturity. For further information about registration or sponsorship, please contact Jo Pippos - Communications Manager at the ABA office or email: email@example.com
The AAC is the perfect platform to connect with new suppliers and strengthen relationships with existing suppliers and network with industry peers – basically it is the perfect setting to discover and learn about new brands, products and services!
Welcome Reception 29th October
An invitation is extended to all delegates to attend the Welcome Reception to be held on the evening of Tuesday, October 29. Our Welcome Reception has become well known as a great opportunity to relax and enjoy the company of your fellow Conference delegates.
Conference Dinner 30th October
Don't miss the Annual Conference Dinner! This evening is a chance to network with other conference delegates in a relaxed atmosphere. Dinner tickets are included with full registration prices, and extra tickets are also available. Be sure to attend the Conference dinner - it will be an evening to remember!
Tuesday, October 29th
Aspergillus - Protecting Your Crop & Reputation Dr Saul Cunningham - CSIRO Entomology
Aeration, Cooling & Dehydration - On Farm Storage Options Michael Coates - University of South Australia
Wednesday, October 30th
Australian Almond Conference Dinner Including the Almond Industry Hall of Fame Induction Thursday, October 31st
Almond Board of Australia AGM
Annual Levy Payers’ Meeting Dr Greg Buchanan
A Word From Our Gold Sponsor RJ Wentz - Bianchi Orchard Systems
Horticulture R&D - Investing in Your Future David Moore - Horticulture Australia
Panel Session - Productivity: More from Less or More from More? Session Chair - Ben Brown, Almond Board of Australia
Official Conference Opening A word from our Platinum Sponsor - Trevor Dennis, HAIFA
Industry Reflections: Transforming Apple Orchards Stuart Tustin - Plant & Food New Zealand
Trendy Californian Almond Orchards - Varieties & Other Bling John Slaughter - Burchell Nursery USA
Past to Present: Revolutionizing Australian Apple Orchards Kevin Sanders - Apple & Pear Australia
The Upside of Almond Varieties Downunder Tony Spiers & Dr Michelle Wirthensohn - University of Adelaide
Beyond Tomorrow: Investigating High Density Orchards Roger Duncan - University of California, Davis
What Lies Beneath? Root Knot Nematodes & Rootstock Choice Peter Clingeleffer - CSIRO
Phil Watters Award: 2011 Recipient Presentation Dean Dinicola - Mandole Almond Orchards
Shining a Light on Canopy, Yield & Food Safety Bruce Lampinen - University of California, Davis
Phil Watters Award: 2013 Recipient Presentation John Kennedy
What is Plan Bee? Protecting Pollination Gerald Martin - RIRDC
Evolving Our Marketing Message in Export & Domestic Markets Joseph Ebbage - Almond Board of Australia
The Buzz on Hive Placement & Fruit Set Dr Saul Cunningham - CSIRO Entomology
Untapped Potential - Water Opportunities in the MDB Rod Luke - Kilter Rural
Carob Moth - Eating Your profits? David Madge - DPI Victoria*
OrchardNet - How Does Your Orchard Stack Up? Brett Rosenzweig - Almond Board of Australia
Telling Storage Pests to “Bug Off” - A Grains Industry Perspective Peter Botta - PCB Consulting
Roger Duncan Pomology Advisor & Viticulture Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension
Bruce Lampinen Integrated Orchard Management, Walnut and Almond Specialist, University of California Department of Plant Sciences
Roger is a Farm Advisor in Stanislaus County, California with over 20 years experience. Stanislaus County includes 150,000 acres of almonds, 8,000 acres of peaches (mostly processing clings) and 10,000 acres of winegrapes. Roger’s major role is to conduct applied research and extension education programs in commercial pomology (fruit & nut trees) and viticulture. Research emphases are in the areas of integrated pest management, improved cultural practices, development of new varieties and rootstocks and increased labor efficiency.
As Integrated Orchard Management/Walnut and Almond Specialist, Bruce’s responsibilities include the coordination of extension teaching and research activities for almonds and walnuts on a statewide basis. He cooperated on three regional almond variety trials in Butte, San Joaquin and Kern Counties. Current research interests include investigating the role of water and nitrogen management in spur longevity in almond, canopy management approaches in high density walnut plantings and water management as it relates to insect and disease susceptibility in walnut and almond.
The Conference Organisers reserve the right to amend this program, please visit www.australianalmonds.com.au/industry/conference_2013 for updated program details
15th Australian Almond Conference Stamford Grand Hotel Glenelg, South Australia October 29-31, 2013 Sponsors & Exhibitors
Silver Welcome Dinner Bronze
Supporters & Exhibitors SA’s No.1 Business Bank.
Olam has a well established presence in Australia, with a particularly strong footprint in the Eastern states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. We operate an integrated supply chain for five key products: cotton, almonds, pulses, grains and wool, delivering these to over 500 customers worldwide. Olam employs over 300 permanent staff plus approximately 300 seasonal employees during peak seasons. Career Opportunities with Olam Orchards Australia Orchard Manager Based at Annuello Farm via Mildura, Victoria and reporting to the Manager – Orchard Operations the Orchard Manager will manage all activities associated with the orchard to achieve performance targets. (Job number J1770) Supervisor – Operations and Irrigation Based at Westmores Orchard, Boundary Bend, Victoria and reporting to the Orchard Manager the Supervisor of Operations and Irrigation will assist the Orchard Manager in the coordination, leading and supervising the day to day orchard operations and activities of orchard personnel as well as oversee the irrigation operations of the orchard, assisting the Orchards Manager to implement and maintain irrigation programs to
optimise sustainable growth and production of the orchard. (Job number J1769) If you believe you have the experience for one of these positions please email your application to firstname.lastname@example.org quoting the appropriate job number or visit www.agrecruit.com.au
Andrew Meurant Agribusiness Recruitment Pty Ltd Phone +61 8 8373 1122 Mobile 0428 823 035
Tailored biosecurity advice for every almond grower just a couple of clicks away
Other useful features include self- assessment checklists to assess current biosecurity practices, templates for biosecurity record keeping and the declarations that producers need when offering animals for sale or when they want to move livestock interstate. It also contains fact sheets on the high priority exotic pests for almond farmers such as Almond leaf scorch and the Glassy winged sharpshooter, which everyone needs to keep an eye out for. The website is the face of the Farm Biosecurity Program - a joint initiative between PHA and Animal Health Australia (AHA). Mr Siebert said that PHA was proud to have worked in partnership with AHA to produce such a valuable resource for Australian farmers. “The site is designed for ease of use and all farmers, from large scale almond, cattle or cotton producers to small-scale vegetable farmers on the edges of our cities. They all should take advantage of this great resource to protect themselves, their industry and the environment.”
Every almond producer can now find practical farm-based biosecurity information that’s tailored to their specific needs on the new Farm Biosecurity website, www.farmbiosecurity.com.au . Mr Brad Siebert, Program Manager for Biosecurity Planning and Implementation at Plant Health Australia (PHA), said that the website is a valuable resource for farmers wanting to know how best to protect their farm from unwanted pests and diseases. “In addition to generic farm hygiene advice, the new site lets producers tailor their experience so that only the biosecurity information and resources that are important to them are displayed” Mr Siebert said. “So if you are an almond farmer with some beef cattle and egg production, all the relevant information on safeguarding each of those aspects of your farm is presented to you on a single page.” “The customised page also links to all the other available resources that may be of use to you,” he said. “YouTube videos, national
Farm biosecurity – secure your farm, secure your future.
codes of practice, and relevant industry resources, it really is a one stop shop for on-farm biosecurity.” The site holds industry-specific information including the Orchard Biosecurity Manual for the Almond Industry which shows the pests that pose the greatest threat to almond production and suggest simple measures that a producer can take to safeguard their business.
which rootstock? Ben Brown Industry Liaison Manager
Growers are probably aware of the increasing number of rootstocks being imported from around the world and now available in Australia for almond production. Each of these rootstocks is said to have certain beneficial characteristics, and whilst this brings about numerous opportunities, it also generates more questions and can create some confusion. In this article I will attempt to provide some simplicity and assistance to those of you thinking about an alternative rootstock.
and communicate important messages to the above ground components of the plant influencing stomatal conductance, shoot growth, fruit growth and ultimately fruit yield. When faced with limiting factors rootstock choice is critical as tree health and fruit yield will not be realised and the wrong choice will only be rectified by uprooting the orchard, so please make the decision carefully. For those who are not aware the Australian industry has two rootstock projects underway which will provide critical information over the coming years: 1. Field evaluation trial - A four hectare statistical design and planting of fifteen rootstocks was planted in August 2013. This will be of particular benefit in a few years once the trees mature and will include numerous assessments, including yield. 2. Root knot nematode (RKN) screening trial – A glasshouse based experiment to fast track the knowledge of rootstock susceptibility to RKN. This project began in late 2012 and will be completed by December 2013. All fifteen rootstocks from the field trial have been purposely inoculated with various pathotypes of RKN from a CSIRO collection and from local almond orchards. RKN susceptibility will be rated based on the ability of the female nematodes to reproduce and proliferate on the root system, a very successful system that’s been used in the grape vine industry. Continued...
The characteristics of a rootstock are often forgotten about or poorly taken into account as they are not as apparent – they are hidden under the ground. The scion on the other hand is well known due to its visible, above ground morphological characteristics such as flowering, growth habit, kernel quality, etc. Nevertheless, the rootstock is 50% of a fruit tree and must symbiotically and mutually interact with the scion to optimise fruit production. It does this by providing a root system that when functioning correctly, will absorb water and nutrients
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2. The rootstock must take into account orchard characteristics such as tree density and canopy size. 3. The rootstock must exhibit good graft compatibility with the scion and this should be well known by both the nursery and grower. 4. The rootstock must be well adapted to the soil conditions, such as calcareous soils, drainage/asphyxia, etc, regardless of the presence of soil pathogens. 5. Finally, once the rootstock has met the above criteria it must be able to tolerate or resist soil pathogens, such as nematodes. Some may have a different view to the process mentioned above, in particular they may place a heavier weighting on characteristics like vigour, or decide soil adaptation is more important than soil pathogens. Regardless, all these issues must be thought of at some stage in the decision process. Does increased genetic vigour equate to increased yield? I would like to highlight one thing about vigour – it’s not directly correlated to high yield, particularly when there are other limiting factors such as soil pathogens. However, when soil adaptation and soil pathogens are non-limiting, vigour is a good indication of resource efficiency and this could achieve greater yield when limited by resources such as water or fertiliser. This may result in more consistent yields from one season to next. Some growers this season have observed plantings with Peach x Almond hybrid rootstocks (generally regarded as high vigour) with a better return bloom than equivalent Nemaguard plantings after a heavy crop last year. Whether this equates to more yield, consistent cropping and less biennial bearing, time will tell. Nemaguard on the other hand, widely considered as moderately vigorous, still performs well and has done for a very long time. The CT Trial for example was planted on Nemaguard at 245 trees/ha, had to contend with a poor pollinator in Ne Plus, yet Nonpareil and Carmel still cropped at approximately 4T/ha at five years of age and averaged approximately 4T/ha from three years of age to 11 years of age. Is it worth taking the risk on rootstocks with RKN susceptibility? I would also like to make a comment on vigour outstripping other limitations, in particular soil pathogens such as nematodes. I regularly hear comments that “(inherent) vigour or extra fertiliser will compensate for a nematode infestation”. The rootstock commonly referred to in this discussion is GF677. Inherent or genetic vigour doesn’t always mean increased yield, but even if it did, vigour is also a function of abiotic (nonliving) and biotic (living) factors. GF677 is genetically a vigorous rootstock but it is also very susceptible to RKN and I do not subscribe to the view that genetic vigour or extra fertiliser will compensate for RKN infestation. Even if RKN infestation could be overcome with extra fertiliser, I find this counterproductive. Figure 1 is a sample of the first roots to be dug up from two random three year old almond trees of the same block in an almond replant site, previously planted with almond seedling rootstock. The galls on the GF677 are RKN infestation and you will notice the
Rootstock characteristics Ideally rootstock selection should consider your specific orchard site characteristics and the results of several years of local field evaluation, but this is not always possible. In the absence of local data, growers will have to rely on overseas field evaluations, original selection criteria of the rootstock breeding programs, other international trials and possibly generic traits of rootstock parentage (Table 1). Table 1: Generalised attributes of parent material used in almond rootstocks
Easy to vegetatively propagate from cuttings. More tolerant of waterlogging and asphyxia. Sometimes has high RKN resistance.
Some graft incompatibility.
Can sometimes produce suckers from below the soil surface.
Susceptible to drought. Difficult to vegetatively propagate from cuttings.
• • • • •
Tolerant of calcareous soils.
Tolerant of drought.
Susceptible to RKN.
High RKN resistance.
Good graft compatibility.
Susceptible to calcareous soils.
Nursery friendly, easy to propagate.
When deciding on a rootstock it is going to be rare, if not impossible, that it’s the “perfect” rootstock. One may therefore ask why bother trying an alternative rootstock? Well the answer is, rootstock characteristics can overcome certain limiting factors (e.g. calcareous soil, nematodes, etc) and this will make a difference in the orchards economic viability. Table 2 provides a summary of characteristics for many of the rootstocks currently available in Australia and should provide a good basis to begin deliberations. It should be highlighted that the data has been produced following the interpretation and results of local and international literature and field trials, and there are always exceptions to the rule. For example RKN tolerance: this assessment may be based on a selection of pathotypes from the country of origin but increased virulence of another local pathotype may exist and the generic claim of tolerance may not hold. Nevertheless, this table is a very good starting point. Rootstock selection process When reviewing Table 2 it may still be difficult to try and decide which rootstock to choose. Selecting a rootstock should involve a systematic objective process and is simply an exercise of elimination. I’ve included five sequential steps below to try and assist the process. 1. The rootstock (and scion) must begin with a high health status from a budwood repository with a record of virus assessment.
Table 2: General characteristics of a selection of rootstocks available for almond
Effects on the Variety
Ring Nematode/ Bacterial Canker
Root knot Nematode
Armillaria Phytophthora Anchorage Chlorosis Compatibility Vigour Propagation by Cuttings
Wild Peach x Peach
Peach x Almond
Peach x Almond x Apricot x Plum H Peach x Almond x Apricot x Plum H
Wild Peach x Peach
Cornerstone Peach x Almond
Krymsk (Kuban) 86
Peach x Plum S
Peach x Almond
M / S
Hansen 536 Peach x Almond
H More T than Nemaguard
Peach x Almond
H More T than Nemaguard
Peach x Almond
H More T than Nemaguard
Key: S - Susceptible, H - High, T - Tolerant, VG - Very Good, G - Good, M - Medium, P - Poor, U - Unknown,
A parting word on rootstock and tree ordering Once you’ve selected a rootstock, another factor to keep in mind is the implications on tree supply. Many, but not all of the new hybrid rootstocks are difficult to both vegetatively propagate and graft, and consequently not nursery friendly. This has implications on the lead time in ordering trees. Enough time needs to be made for successful rootstock propagation and then tree nurseries commonly prefer to produce two year old trees rather than one year old due to the grafting challenges. This next three to four year period may also be challenging with indications that budwood and tree demand will increase as a result of both replanting and new orchard developments. This will again place further pressure on producing one year old trees due to the challenges of supplying enough spring budwood in a narrow six week window to meet the optimum tree specifications. So please plan, consult your nursery, and be prepared to order two year old trees to ensure tree supply, and again please choose your rootstock carefully.
stunted root distribution, in particular the lack of fine feeder roots in comparison to Nemaguard. This tree is not dead, but it is also very young and hasn’t been asked to carry a 3-4 T/ha crop yet. Regardless of the final outcome of tree health, Nemaguard (tolerant to RKN), is likely to produce the more vigorous tree and I know which root system I would want to absorb my expensive water and nutrient program. This example is also a good illustration of the long term goal growers should employ when choosing a rootstock and not just to think of one generation of plantings. In this example, RKN was able to proliferate in the first planting due to the almond seedling rootstock and consequently the new plantings have a major issue to contend with. By selecting a rootstock with nematode susceptibility and assuming your orchard soil type is conducive to nematodes (e.g. sandy textured soil which is approximately 80% of the industry), you are going out of your way to select for high nematode populations. Even if the populations start low (e.g. virgin horticultural land or an orchard previously planted with Nemaguard or another horticultural crop type) the orchard will more likely end with high populations. Did you know? Did you know Nemaguard is not clonally propagated? Many would be aware Nemaguard is a seedling rootstock but may not realise the implications. Nemaguard seed is produced from out-crossing pollination events and consequently each seed produced is a different progeny, or in other words Nemaguard is heterogeneous (non-uniform). Fortunately, RKN resistance is a dominant trait but other traits may be slightly different.
For further information contact:
Ben Brown Industry Development Manager Almond Board of Australia P 08 8582 2055 or 0447 447 223 E: email@example.com
Figure 1: GF677 (left) and Nemaguard (right) root system in a 3 year old almond replant orchard previously planted to a RKN susceptible rootstock
Cabrio ® for Almonds. It’s about blooming time.
Cabrio ® is a new fungicide option for almond growers: •Cabrio introduces the protectant properties of pyraclostrobin •Provides a Fungicide Group 11 for resistance management rotation
•Apply at flowering and repeat 10 to 14 days later •Use only two Cabrio sprays per season as part of a full control program Protects almonds early for later nut returns. nufarm.com.au
® Cabrio is a registered trademark of BASF used under license by Nufarm Australia Limited
MetEye - your eye on the environment http://www.bom.gov.au/australia/meteye/
Enter your location
How to use MetEye When you enter MetEye you will see all of the temperatures currently around Australia. On the left hand side you will see a column giving you the options to see LATEST WEATHER • The current temperature (already shown) • Current relative humidity (%) • Rainfall since 9am (mm) • Rainfall in the last 10 minutes (mm) • Wind speed and direction (km/h) • Wind speed and direction (knots) • Current sea surface temperature A little further down is the Overlay section where you can add or subtract; • Latest rain radar • Current tropical cyclones • River conditions • Current cloud cover In the far left bottom corner there is a FORECASTS title, this allows you to choose from the following: • Rainfall forecasts • Temperature forecasts • Storms, snow, fog, frost… • Humidity forecasts When you click on any of these the map will automatically change. Out of the six options you can only choose one at a time and it will show you the current forecasts for this type of weather parameter. On the main screen you can enter your location into the text bar at the top. This will take you to the location you are searching for and show you the forecast for that area. You can also use the +, - to zoom in and out of the map. Norwood has been selected in the following example. When you have zoomed in to your destination and clicked on that point (or selected from location search) a screen like this will come up showing the forecast for the next 7 days. You may also want more detail so you can click on the button which says detail. This will show you the temperature and winds every three hours for the day selected. To see even more another option is to press the button which says ‘’see text views for location’’. If you click on that button you will see an expanded set of information including observations from nearby stations For even more detail check out the ‘Detailed 3-Hourly Forecast’. This process is the same for any of the forecasts, and the latest temperature. Also back on the main screen you can choose to show these different zones, places and objects: • Forecast districts • Marine zones • Roads & railways • Rivers & lakes • Catchments • Wind forecasts • Waves forecasts
Text views for location
Detailed 3 Hourly Forecast
The system is great for a quick overview or if you delve deeper it contains highly detailed information out to 7-days ahead for most states. Queensland will see the system implemented in early 2014 and the Northern Territory in early 2015.
Zones, Places & Object Views
Poached Pears Chocolate Sauce & Almonds
For more delicious recipes visit: www.amazingalmonds.com.au
Ingredients Pears 4 cups water 1 cinnamon stick ½ teaspoon nutmeg ¼ cup sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 4 pears, peeled, cut in half and cored (use a melon baller) Chocolate Sauce 200 grams dark or milk chocolate pieces 300 grams cream Garnish 120 grams slivered almonds (toasted in a dry pan if you like)
Pour water into a medium saucepan and add cinnamon, nutmeg, sugar and lemon juice. Bring to the boil and then reduce heat to low so that the water is gently simmering. Drop pear halves in and cook on gentle heat for 15-20 minutes until pears are soft. Chocolate Sauce In a small saucepan heat up cream to just before boiling and then drop chocolate pieces in. Stir gently until completely dissolved. Garnish If you wish, you can toast the slivered almonds in a dry pan over a medium heat. Stir them constantly and remove them as soon as they start to brown. To serve To serve, arrange pears in a plate and then spoon over chocolate sauce. Garnish with almonds and serve immediately.