ABA Membership As a member you have a direct say about the future of the industry and direct access to our organisation. The ABA has undertaken industry-wide consultation to develop an Industry Strategic Plan which establishes funding priorities for the industry’s R&D and marketing programs. We aim to support our rapidly increasing industry by encouraging effective communication and co-operation between industry members. The ABA aims to keep members informed through a range of activities including: • Presentation of the Annual Almond Industry Conference. • Distribution of the ABA’s quarterly newsletter “In a Nutshell” • Regular field days and regional meetings • Technical articles and ABA news in the “Australian Nutgrower” Journal • Collection and distribution of industry statistics • Access to regularly updated information via the ABA website To join the ABA please visit our website and download a membership form, or contact our office on 08 8582 2055 or email email@example.com Slasher P RU IRRW &KULV *URZ EXLOW 7UDLOLQJ For Sale +\G OLIW )RXU URWRU VODVKHU ¿YH JHDU ER[HV LQ DOO +HDY\ GXW\ LQ JRRG FRQGLWLRQ %RPEHU WLUHV 3K % RU + LQFO *67 ZLWK QHZ SDLQW
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Circulation: With a circulation of more than 600 and readership of over 2000 the ‘In A Nutshell’ newsletter is available to the general public and interested parties via the Almond Board of Australian website www.australianalmonds.com.au, and high quality printed copies distributed to: Almond board of Australia members, industry stakeholders within Australia and overseas, and to the broader community including Horticulture Australia and Government.
In a Nutshell The Almond Board of Australia is the peak industry body representing the interest of almond growers, processors and marketers in Australia in matters of national importance including regulation, legislation, marketing research and development. In a Nutshell is published quarterly by the ABA to inform industry members. Membership The Almond Board of Australia offers membership to growers, processors, marketers and interested parties. Please contact the Almond Board of Australia for current membership fees and inclusions.
Editor Jo Ireland
Communications Manager Almond Board of Australia 9 William Street, PO Box 2246 BERRI SA 5343
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Some of these projects were facilitated by HAL in partnership with the Almond Board of Australia. They were funded by the R&D levy and/or voluntary contributions from industry. The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.
Advertising/Editorial The Almond Board of Australia acknowledges contributions made by private enterprise through placement of advertisements in this publication. Any advertising and/or editorial supplied to this publication does not necessarily reflect the views of the Almond Board of Australia and unless otherwise specified, no products and/or services are endorsed by this organisation.
Ross Skinner & Brendan Sidhu
To say we need 2012/13 to be a good season is an understatement. The trees are in full bloom as I write this, and unlike last season there appears to a strong overlap of Nonpareil and pollinators making it hard to distinguish between the different varietal rows. We have had an excellent winter for chilling and despite heavy early winds we have strong flower numbers remaining on most varieties. If pollination goes to plan, fruit numbers should be back to more normal levels for both Nonpareil and most pollinators - although there are some early reports of patchy and disappointing flower numbers on Fritz and Price. With the disappointing yields over the past two years, the forecast large additions to our supply have not been realised with the increased tonnage between 2011 and 2012 being approximately 12,000 tonnes and not the 30,000 tonne increase based on the plantings analysis. The increase still represents a jump of 30% in available almond product which needs to find a home. Early sales to the domestic market in 2012 are going well, with Australian consumption for the first four months of the marketing year (March-June) running at 9.74%. Sales of Australian origin almonds are up 10.7% and imports are down 0.7%. Our exports are up 79% with strong sales into: • India • Germany • United Arab Emirates • New Zealand The major factors impacting on returns to Australian almond producers have been the high Australian dollar (currently sitting at US$1.04), and the predicted 2012 US crop of 1,000,000 tonnes, which is slightly up on the early forecast, and also slightly more than last year’s crop. Our processors are in a period of change with Almondco now having completed the purchase of Simarloo’s processing facility, and Olam well progressed in the building of their new facility at Carwarp (30km from Mildura).
Although the past two years have been challenging, industry members are seeking solutions to reduce cost, production risks and improve returns. Some of the work in progress includes identifying better spraying techniques, securing access to agricultural chemicals for carob moth and diseases, reducing processing damage to kernel, finding value add uses for hull and shell, and developing a promotional program that will continue to drive the increased consumption of Australian almonds at close to double digit growth. As the industry body, the ABA is either undertaking this work directly or assisting industry members to address these matters. The ABA has a clear focus on helping Australian almond industry members and we appreciate the support of all those who have joined as members. One of the advantages of membership is the reduced registration fee for the Annual Conference, being held at the Novotel Barossa Valley Resort, Rowland Flat, South Australia, on October 8th to 10th. The presenters include our researchers; US researcher Patrick Brown, the ‘Almond Doctor’ - David Doll US Extension Officer for Merced County, as well as presenters on processing, marketing, promotion, the carbon tax and farm credit scheme, and much more. The Welcome Reception and annual Conference Dinner sponsored by Jack Rabbit and Elders are always wonderful events. This year will see the induction of another worthy member to the Almond Hall of Fame. The surprise dinner entertainment will also be a highlight. How can something so enjoyable be tax deductible? As an ABA member or not you are welcome to join us at the Conference.
Budgets…. For Crop Nutrients
Industry Development Officer
Tables 3 & 4 show the crop removal figures in kg/Ha after they have been increased by 20% for all growers and both seasons. A quick comparison now highlights that Grower 3 is close to maintaining a balanced supply/demand of nutrients and Grower 1 is applying more nutrients than is removed (N.B. Grower 1 is part of a high input trial, hence the high rates of N & K). Grower 2 sits somewhere in the mid range, inputs are higher than the crop removal but not excessively. What happens if my inputs are vastly higher than the crop removal? The short answer is that the nutrients will accumulate in the soil for future use or if they are in a highly mobile form e.g. nitrate-N, they can be leached from the root zone. The complex answer involves your cash flow budget and a look at the health status of your orchard. Applying vastly higher nutritional inputs than the tree needs may not result in extra yield (i.e. the results of the three fertiliser rates at the CT Trial) but will certainly be an added expense which in turn affects the bottom line of your business. In a normal season an average yielding tree will be carrying enough crop to keep itself in balance i.e. not too vegetative but ‘just right’. However, if the yields are low, as our industry has experienced over the last two seasons, the crop levels may not be high enough to keep the tree in balance. There is a strong possibility that the tree can become too vegetative. Normally extra growth is considered a good thing, growth equals buds equals crop, right? Wrong! If the tree becomes too vegetative the balance is lost and fruitfulness will decline due to increased shading within the canopy, poor flower bud development and eventually shoot death in the lower part of the tree. Light and slight stress is needed for bud differentiation which is naturally achieved by maintaining a healthy cropping /vegetative ratio i.e. a tree that’s in balance. It’s a principle that is widely adhered to in the summer fruit industry; tree vigour needs to be controlled to maintain adequate yields. If your projected yields are light and the spring
branches, lost in the soil through leaching, locked up in the soil or potentially lost to the atmosphere, especially in the case of nitrogen through volatilisation. Nutrients are also exported from the orchard through the removal and burning of prunings. How much extra nutrient is needed to allow for use by the rest of the tree and to take account of losses within the production system? It is generally regarded that the tree needs to have access to at least the same amount of each nutrient as is removed from the orchard in the form of fruit, together with some extra, to allow for root and shoot growth, as well as losses incurred during application (leaching or nutrients being locked-up in the soil). An extra 20-30% above the fruit removal is often considered adequate. There are reservoirs of some nutrients in soil minerals which can keep the trees supplied for many years, whereas some are only available in limited amounts or are easily lost from the soil profile.
For the past two seasons I have been collecting fruit samples every fortnight from three Riverland orchards, from fruitset through to harvest. The samples were sent to the lab for nutrient analysis, and the amount contained in the whole crop was then compared to the cumulative fertiliser inputs as the season progressed. More details of this fruit nutrition comparison can be found in an up-coming fact sheet . In almost all cases the amount of fertiliser applied was greater than the amount removed in crop exported from the orchard. The only exceptions to this were Grower 3; applying less potassium than was removed; and Grower 2 applying less phosphorus than was removed during the 2010-11 season (Table 1). All fertiliser inputs were higher than the crop removal during 2011-12 for all growers (Table 2). Naturally almond trees need more nutrient inputs than just what is removed from the crop. Nutrients are used and recycled in leaves, stored in the wood of the trunk and
Table 1: Removal of nutrients in fruit at harvest 2011 (kg/Ha) Grower 1, 2011 Grower 2, 2011
Grower 3, 2011
Removal +/- N 111.21 266.22 + 145.03 220.25 + 209.12 246.59 + P 14.67 49.75 + 18.65 12.46 - 23.77 34.51 + K 149.89 398.67 + 207.93 255.35 + 217.87 201.68 - Table 2: Removal of nutrients in fruit at harvest 2012 (kg/Ha) Grower 1, 2012 Grower 2, 2012 Grower 3, 2012 Yield 3,433 2,850 3,379 Removal Input +/- Removal Input +/- Removal Input +/- N 169.89 319.18 + 144.76 269.64 + 193.58 261.81 + P 25.16 49.75 + 8.52 21.34 + 6.31 14.38 + K 209.69 576.00 + 177.07 273.16 + 195.04 229.82 + Table 3: Removal of nutrients in fruit at harvest plus 20%, 2011 (kg/Ha) 20% Extra percentage to allow for root, shoot growth etc Grower 1, 2011 Grower 2, 2011 Grower 3, 2011 Yield 1,876 3,001 3,985 Removal Input +/- Removal Input +/- Removal Input +/- N 133.45 266.22 + 174.03 220.25 + 250.94 246.59 - P 17.61 49.75 + 22.38 12.46 - 28.52 34.51 + K 179.86 398.67 + 249.52 255.35 + 261.45 201.68 - Table 4: Removal of nutrients in fruit at harvest plus 20%, 2012 (kg/Ha) 20% Extra percentage to allow for root, shoot growth etc Grower 1, 2012 Grower 2, 2012 Grower 3, 2012 Yield 3,433 2,850 3,379 Removal Input +/- Removal Input +/- Removal Input +/- N 203.87 319.18 + 173.71 269.64 + 232.30 261.81 + P 30.19 49.75 + 10.22 21.34 + 7.57 14.38 + K 251.63 576.00 + 212.49 273.16 + 234.05 229.82 - Input +/- Removal Input +/- Removal Input
HELICOPTER ALMOND SPRAYING a 3529(1 5(68/76 a a &267 ())(&7,9( a a )$67 $1' ()),&,(17 a
growing conditions are favourable for vegetative growth (e.g. the mild, wet springs of the previous two seasons) it may pay to reduce the rates of fertiliser applied to match tree demand. There will be an economic benefit in the short term and hopefully tree performance benefits for the following season. It is worthwhile to consider reviewing your fertiliser program and matching it to your projected yield for the coming season. Taking fruit samples at harvest to calculate a fruit removal budget would be a valuable first step. Details on how to do a fruit removal budget can be found in the Crop Nutrient Removal fact sheet or by contacting me the Almond Board office. The main objective is to regulate your fertiliser inputs according to yield and vigour to keep the tree in balance. By doing this you optimise your chances of growing an economically and sustainable crop.water application rate of 2000L/Ha. For further information contact: Brett Rosenzweig Industry Development Officer Almond Board of Australia P 08 8582 2055 or 0429 837 137 E: email@example.com
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Brett Rosenzweig Industry Development Officer
maintain adequate light interception (theoretically 80% of row width), basic calculations of tree canopy volume and the amount of air needed to displace the canopy for effective spray coverage. David Williams gave a presentation of area wide mating disruption of Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth in apples and pears. Oriental Fruit Moth comes from the same family as Carob Moth and the control methods that have been used in the Goulburn Valley may be able to be applied to Carob Moth. The success of the mating disruption is mainly due to the area wide component of the program. Every property that has the right conditions for successful egg laying /hatching of pupae needs to participate in the distribution of pheromone baits. If there is an area where egg laying /hatching can still occur, then moths can still move back into that area (even if pheromone baits exist) and cause crop damage. Mark O’Connell gave a presentation about remote sensing and its potential to assess canopy cover, yield and water use efficiency. Remote sensing can be done with an aircraft or an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and can produce a map of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The NDVI shows the percentage of canopy cover in the orchard and the yield potential. Remote sensing can also show the crop water requirement based on the vegetative cover and evaporative demand, relate this to the crop water supply to obtain a crop co-efficient. Remote sensing can then look at the spatial variability within the orchard to optimise irrigation management. Future Study Tours
• Kill off ryegrass in spring to stop competition with the trees • Keep the tree line free of compaction to facilitate ideal conditions for growth of fine feeder roots and root hairs While Bruce’s work was mainly developed for the stone and pome fruit crops grown in the Goulburn Valley and the soil types that are present in the area, I believe some of the keys points can be applied to almond growing. Firstly ensure thorough site preparation occurs before planting. Correctly deep rip the orchard to break up any compaction layers then incorporate organic matter, preferably by growing rye grass for a season. Plant the trees and then throughout the life of the orchard aim to keep compaction in the tree line to a minimum. Aim to keep adding organic matter each year, preferably by growing rye grass. The ability to grow rye grass will be limited by seasonal rainfall and whether it can be managed satisfactorily so that it doesn’t become an obstruction at harvest time. A fact sheet is being prepared to summarise the topic of Super Soils and how Bruce’s 31 practices might be able to be applied by almond growers for a.) better soil management and b.) increased yields. DPI, Tatura Centre On Tuesday morning the tour group travelled to the Department of Primary Industries research centre at Tatura to meet with Harold Adem, David Williams and Mark O’Connell. Harold gave the group a presentation on canopy management. Discussions during his presentation centered on the ideal canopy height to
On the 18th and 19th June, the Almond Board of Australia hosted a study tour for 38 industry representatives and growers to the Shepparton region. The tour group met with Dr Bruce Cockcroft on Monday afternoon to hear about his research work over the last 15 years on developing and maintaining Super Soils. Bruce took us to an orchard in Ardmona where he explained the concept of a Super Soil, where they are found, why Australia doesn’t have any and what growers can do to build their own Super Soil. Bruce’s definition of a Super Soil is they: • are made up of alluvial loams or fine sandy loams • are found in younger soils i.e. less than 1000 years old • contain the mineral montmorillonite • have high porosity (water holding capacity) • contain no coalescence (soil hardness or compaction) • have high levels of organic matter (greater 7 - 8%) • have high infiltration rates Australian irrigated soils generally don’t have any of these properties (aside from high infiltration rates in sandy soils) as they are much older (greater than 80,000 years old) and have been subject to the weathering process for longer. Bruce has come up with a list of 31 inputs and practices that he maintains will improve soil structure to Super Soil status and keep it that way. The main points from Bruce’s list are: • Alleviate soil compaction before planting • Grow rye grass as a source of organic matter before planting • Rye grass is the best
The next planned study tour will be to the Riverina almond growing area in January 2013. The tour will meet with local growers, inspect orchards and in particular, visit Select Harvests Yilgah property at Hillston to inspect the new self pollinating almond variety from Zaiger Genetics called Independence. Stay tuned for more details closer to the event.
grass species to produce a rhizosphere around the roots
• The rhizosphere
encourages the correct soil biology so that organic matter is not rapidly consumed or digested by bacteria • Keep growing rye grass on an annual basis (autumn and winter) but keep away from the base of trees (competition for water & nutrients)
Low in sodium and chloride - high in soluble nutrients
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Australian Almond Conference 2012 8th - 10th October 2012 Novotel Barossa Valley Resort, South Australia
Events Social Golf Day Enjoy a memorable day of golf teeing off at 10am with fellow delegates in an ambrose style competition at the beautiful Tanunda Pines Golf Club.
The Almond Board of Australia is pleased to present the 14th Australian Almond Conference, from 8th to 10th October 2012 at the Novotel Barossa Valley Resort, South Australia. Hosted by the ABA in partnership with Horticulture Australia, this event supports the creation of an environment to facilitate development and deployment of knowledge to industry. A ‘must attend’ event on the annual industry calendar, this conference is the largest gathering of almond industry representatives in Australia. It brings together over 200 Australian and international delegates with participants encompassing the entire supply chain, from growers to processors, marketers, researchers, industry suppliers and researchers. The Conference will be focussed on providing up-to-date information about the current state of the Australian almond industry andhighlighting its commercial andmarketing strengths. Conference Highlights • A fabulous and unique opportunity to connect with business and industry contacts in a relaxed professional environment. • An engaging and informative program with two days of presentations and including networking opportunities. • Topics including consumer and retail trends, outlook for Australian and global almond production, pollination, water, orchard nutrition and more.
Welcome Reception 8th October
An invitation is extended to all delegates to attend the Welcome Reception to be held on the evening of Monday, October 8. OurWelcome Reception has become well known as a great opportunity to relax and enjoy the company of your fellow Conference delegates.
• Trade show displaying latest products and services.
www.australianalmonds.com.au/industry/conference_2012 For further information about registration or sponsorship, please contact Jo Ireland - Communications Manager at the ABA office or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Conference Dinner 9th October
Don't miss the Annual Conference Dinner! This evening is a chance to network with other conference delegates in a relaxed atmosphere. Dinner tickets are included with full registration prices, and extra tickets are also available. Be sure to attend the Conference dinner - it will be an evening to remember!
Monday, October 8th PreliminaryProgram
10.00am Social Golf Day Tee Off & 19th Hole
6.30pm Welcome Reception
Wednesday, October 10th
Tuesday, October 9th
9.00am Zinc Absorption & its Effects
8.30am Almond Board of Australia AGM
Dr Avner Silber - The Vulcani Institute
What's the Right Rate? Calculating Your Nutrient Budget Prof Patrick Brown - UC Davis Feeding the Masses - Roasted or Raw? Nutritional Research Lisa Yates - Nuts for Life
9.30am Annual Levy Payers’ Meeting Dr Greg Buchanan
10.15am Morning Tea & Trade Exhibition
10.45am Official Conference Opening "A Word From our Sponsor"
10.30am Morning Tea & Trade Exhibition
11.00am Horticulture R&D - Investing in Your Future Warwick Scherf - Horticulture Australia
11.00am Our Approach to Promotion - Overview Joseph Ebbage - Almond Board of Australia
11.20am Remote Controlled Orchards - Not Just for Nerds! Prof Salah Sukkarieh - Australian Centre Field Robotics
11.10am Why are Consumers Nuts for Our Almonds? James Pike - Added Value
11.40am The Carbon Tax & Sequestration - Friend or Foe? Dr Mark Siebentritt - NRM and Sustainability Consultant
11.30am Almond Blogging
12.00noon Lunch & Trade Exhibition
11.50pm The Almond Market - Nutting Out a Strategy Damien Houlahan - Olam Australia
1.00pm Future & Current Global Economics Hans Kunnen - St George Banking Group
12.10pm Lunch & Trade Exhibition
Setting a Cracking Pace - Advances in Hulling & Shelling Prof John Fielke - University of SA Hulls & Shells - One Man's Trash is Another's Treasure Dr Mark Siebentritt - NRM and Sustainability Consultant
1.10pm Growing better trees - Overview Ben Brown - Almond Board of Australia
“The Almond Doctor” - A Prescription for Healthy Trees David Doll - UC Farm Advisor
2.20pm Super Soils
Dr Rob Murray - University of Adelaide
2.00pm The Ideal Almond Tree - Are We Closing In? Dr Michelle Wirthensohn
Pollination - How Many Bees, & Can They be Trained? Dr Saul Cunningham - CSIRO Entemology
Spray Coverage demonstration "The Practical Way to Get Wet" Geoff Furness
4.30pm Know Your Enemy - The US Varroa Experience Daniel Martin
4.00pm Official Conference Close
5.00pm Conference Day Close
6.30pm Pre Dinner Exhibition Canapes
Australian Almond Conference Dinner Including the Almond Industry Hall of Fame Induction
Australian Almond Conference Proudly Supported by
The Conference Organisers reserve the right to amend this program, please visit www.australianalmonds.com.au/industry/conference_2012 for updated program details
Professor patrick brown Professor of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis Featured Speakers
Patrick’s major research interests are in plant and soil nutrition in annual and perennial horticulture including: physiology and biochemistry of plant nutrient uptake; interactions of nutrition with disease resistance; the selection of crops with improved nutrient efficiency; nutrient application technology and development of environmentally sound fertilizer use; molecular and genetic aspects of nutrient acquisition and tolerance; nutritional physiology in regard to boron and nickel.
‘the almond doctor’ david doll Pomology Advisor, UCCE Farm Adviser
David is a pomology advisor for the University of California Cooperative Extension system. He serves almond growers by helping them with various issues that arise in the operations of an almond orchard. Notes from his orchard visits are written up to demonstrate various field diagnostic strategies and skills and posted on his blog site “The Almond Doctor”. David is a Plant Pathologist with field diagnosis and plant diseases his area of expertise. He also works with issues of air and water quality, orchard removal and replanting, as well as soil ecology. David’s current responsibilities within Merced County include over 102,000 acres (41,000 hectares) of almonds, 6,000 acres (2,400 hectares)of walnuts, and 6,000 acres (2400 hectares) of Pistachios.
Salah Sukkarieh Director of Research & Innovation, Australian Centre for Field Robotics, University of Sydney Salah Sukkarieh is the Director of Research and Innovation of the Australian Centre for Field Robotics and the Professor of Robotics and Intelligent Systems at the University of Sydney in the School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering. Salah received his Honours in BE Mechatronics Engineering in 1997 and his PhD in 2000 at the University of Sydney. He has been the principal research and development lead on many of the robotics and intelligent systems projects at the ACFR including logistics, commercial aviation, aerospace, defence, agriculture and mining. He has consulted to a number of industry partners including Rio Tinto, BHP, Qantas, BAE Systems, QLD Biosecurity, and the NSW DPI. Salah is on the editorial board for the Journal of Field Robotics, Journal of Autonomous Robots, and Transactions of Aerospace Systems, and has over 180 publications in the robotics and intelligent systems area.
Hans kunnen Chief Economist, St George Banking Group
Hans Kunnen is Chief Economist of the St.George Banking Group which includes the Bank of Melbourne and Bank of South Australia. For over a decade he was the Head of Investment Markets Research at Colonial First State working with portfolio managers and company analysts. Hans was a director of Colonial First State and has served on a number of government and industry bodies. In the early 1990s he was Chief Economist at State Bank NSW and in the 1980s Hans taught economics at the University of New England and at Macquarie University in Sydney. Hans has recently published his first book Borrow and Build which explores ways to use debt to responsibly build wealth over time. Hans has an honours degree in economics from the University of Western Australia and a masters degree in economics from Macquarie University.
REGISTER nOW! www.australianalmonds.com.au/industry/conference_2012 For further information about registration or sponsorship, please contact Jo Ireland - Communications Manager at the ABA office or email: email@example.com
Despite the lower than estimated 2012 harvest, it was the largest the Australian almond industry had experienced. The 2012 harvest is estimated to achieve approximately 50,000 tonnes, an increase of 33% from 2011. The increased harvest enabled new investment to occur and as we finish the 2011/12 season and begin another it is an opportune time to summarise the key R&D projects with respect to the industry’s R&D objectives and strategies (Table 1), that have either been endorsed or are undergoing contracting for the 2012/13 investment year. The projects are funded by Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) using the almond industry levy, voluntary contributions from industry and matched funds from the Australian Government. A summary of three selected R&D projects is provided below. R&D Roundup Ben Brown - Industry Liaison Manager
Advanced processing of almonds AL12003
2. Effective aeration and dehydration of bulk almonds in silos/bunkers/sheds. This work aims to provide models of air flow and hence moisture movements through stockpiled almonds that may be in-hull, in-shell or kernels. Using airflow to effectively aerate the almonds, the storage conditions will be improved and thus will permit the earlier storage of almonds with higher moisture content and potentially avoiding destructive rains during the harvest period. 3. Improved cracking of almonds. This work aims to provide new processes that will reduce the damage done to kernels and hence increase recovery of undamaged kernels, thus reducing losses, improving the appearance of shelled almonds and permitting better machine vision sorting of defects such as insect and pest damage. Impact of strategic deficit irrigation for almonds on tree phenology, bloom, nut set and hull rot AL12010 This project will consolidate and expand on the previous project investigating the impact of strategic deficit irrigation and its effect on yield. In the project will investigate the timing and duration of key phenological events, the quantity of bloom and fruit set and the impact of strategic irrigation management on the potential for hull rot.
This project addresses several priorities relating to the post harvest sector of the supply chain. This project proposes to support investigations by three PhD students at the University of South Australia (under the supervision of Associate Professor John Fielke and Dr Chris Saunders) on the following topics: 1. Effective hulling of almonds – infield and during processing. This work aims to provide designs and operating parameters for equipment to be used both on-farm and in factory to condition and remove hulls from almonds. As hulls make up 50% of the almond mass and contain many nutrients, hulling at the farm prior to stockpiling will reduce nutrient costs if they are returned to the orchard, reduce storage costs as only half of the mass of product needs to be stockpiled and likewise reduce transport costs. Managing carob moth in almonds AL12004 In recent years, the Australian almond industry has experienced growing concern regarding the level of kernel damage attributed to Carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae). Its larvae feed on almond hulls and kernels, reducing the kernel value to processing only or rendering the kernels unfit for human consumption. Carob moth threatens to reduce almond profitability through increased supply chain costs and reduced product quality. This project aims to begin developing an effective management program for carob moth in almonds following investigations in: the seasonal phenology of carob moth; evaluation of mating disruption; impact of mummy nut removal; and optimum timing of ovicide/larvicide applications.
Table 1: New almond R&D investment endorsed and undergoing contracting to begin in 2012/13
Objective 1: Develop & maintain market opportunities (volume sold) 1.1 Enhance capability to build the Australian almond brand through market and consumer research
AL11703 – Almond international networking
Investment occurs as a result of voluntary contributions made by almond marketers Investment occurs as a result of voluntary contributions made by almond marketers
1.2 Identify and develop new marketing opportunities
1.3 Research and educate key influencers about the health benefits of almonds Objective 2: Increase product value (quality & price) 2.1 Establish practices to enhance product quality throughout the value chain 2.2 Promote food safety practices from production through to consumption
AL12003 – Advanced processing of almonds AL12006 – Minor use permits and chemical registrations for the almond industry
3.1 Improve productivity and competitiveness across the value chain 3.2 Safeguard industry production and marketing systems from potential biosecurity threats
AL12008 – Fruit set and plant physiology in almonds AL12010 – Impact of strategic deficit irrigation for almonds on tree phenology, bloom, nut set and hull rot AL12011 – Development of high health almond budwood repository MT12005 - Development of molecular diagnostic tools to detect endemic and exotic pathogens of Prunus species for Australia
3.3 Support sustainable almond production
3.4 Facilitate access to superior plant material
Objective 4: Provide a supportive operating environment (skills & communication) 4.1 Enhance skills and capacity to support current and future industry needs
AL12000 – Australian almond industry – liaison and extension project
AL12000 – Australian almond industry – liaison and extension project AL12910 – Almond consultation funding agreement AL12000 – Australian almond industry – liaison and extension project AL12910 – Almond consultation funding agreement
4.2 Develop and deliver effective R&D programs that support the Strategic Plan 4.3 Support adoption of R&D outcomes by effective extension 4.4 Facilitate the two-way flow of information through the value chain
All projects have been developed through consultation with industry, in particular with the Industry Advisory Committee (IAC), Almond Board of Australia (ABA), Plant Improvement Committee, Production Committee and Processing Committee. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the efforts and voluntary devotion of time industry dedicates to this process and those that offer their orchards, facilities and staff for participation in the R&D projects. If you would like any further information regarding the new or current investment of the almond industry levy please don’t hesitate to make contact.
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T ech Bytes Jo Ireland Communications Manager
upgrade options. This means that any major new computer upgrade tends to require a new motherboard with it, and this brings a whole new set of complications. You can upgrade or add new memory modules without causing so much as a blip, but trying to upgrade a motherboard is almost certain to cause your computer to stop booting altogether. Many have tried, and many have been greeted with the cold gasp of the Blue Screen of Death for their efforts. Power Supply One of the most important (and often overlooked) components in any computer is the power supply. The power supply is the one component you don’t want to cut corners on. An insufficient power supply can result in reduced performance (or none at all) for important components such as video cards and processors.
clock, the computer can perform an action of some type. When looking for a computer you will hear terms like “Intel Core i5”, “Intel Core i7” and others – referring to the speed and capacity of the CPU chip – the higher the number the faster your computer will process information. For example, if your CPU chip is rated 2 GHz, it can perform actions at 2 billion times a second. Without the CPU, you have no computer and it cannot be upgraded or replaced – if this part dies, so does your computer! Motherboard A computer’s motherboard, the backplane of circuits, ports and slots that allows the processor to communicate with all the other hardware, is arguably the most important component in an entire PC. Besides linking hardware together, it also acts as the focal point for the operating system, allowing it access to all the hardware components.
Its Whats Inside that counts When someone tells you that “You need a RAM upgrade” or “Your Power Supply is over heating” what does it really mean? In this article we’ll be taking a look at what’s inside the box – the bits that make it tick, and how you can make sure your computer is running to the best of its ability.
A motherboard can come in many configurations to fit different needs and budgets. At its most basic, it has several interfaces for necessary components and numerous microchips that control computer startup. They also impact the amount and type of RAM (see below) that users can install in a computer. Sadly, with the constant pace of change in the IT markets, motherboards become outdated very quickly when it comes to
The Central Processing Unit or Processor The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the “brain” of the computer; it is the ‘compute’ in computer. The CPU (or sometimes called the ‘Processor’) is a small chip inside the computer box that does the computer’s “thinking”. Each CPU has an internal clock which determines how fast the CPU can process data. At each tick of its internal Above: The CPU (or Processor) is considered the “brains” of your computer
Above: The Motherboard is the hub that connects all of the hardware of your computer together, allowing it all to communicate
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read information from the right location on a storage platter. Solid State Drives (SSDs) An SSD can be thought of as an oversized and more sophisticated version of the humble USB memory stick. Like a memory stick, there are no moving parts to an SSD, information is stored in microchips. An SSD does not have a mechanical arm to read and write data, it instead relies on an embedded processor called a controller to perform a bunch of operations related to reading and writing data. This difference is what makes SSD so much faster. Both of these kinds of drives can be replaced if necessary with larger drives as your storage needs increase. But which to choose? If you: • Don’t want to spend much money • Don’t care too much about how fast a computer boots up or opens programs then get a HDD. If you: • You are willing to pay for faster performance • Don’t mind limited storage capacity or can work around that then get an SSD. Hard disk drives (HDDs) are more prone to fail as they have moving parts, but can be replaced, but all types of hard drive can fail, and if so - you may loose all the data stored on them, so make sure you always keep adequate and recent backups of all of your information. Just for Laughs I was having a bit of trouble with my laptop so I took it to my local repair shop. “Please,” I said to the man behind the counter, “you have to fix my laptop, it’s driving me insane! It works fine for a while but every now and then it’ll churn out these really depressing, lovesick songs about heartbreak and I don’t know how to make it stop!” “Well I’ve certainly never heard anything like it,” the repair man said, “what make of laptop do you have?” “A Dell.” Do you have a suggestion for an article you would like to see? Let me know! Jo Ireland Communications Manager Almond Board of Australia P 08 8582 2055 or 0417 819 765 E: email@example.com
Power supplies usually contain one or more cooling fans and as computers become laden with more and more components, the need for larger power supplies grows. A typical power supply has gone from 150 watts in the early nineties to 450 watts and greater today. Power supplies draw only the current they require at any given time. A 450w model won’t draw more than 200 watts if that is all the system is demanding. All system components are not in use simultaneously, so the amount of power required varies. Just about any intermittent problem can be caused by a faulty power supply. Common power-related symptoms include: • Any power on or system startup failures or lockups • Spontaneous rebooting or intermittent lockups during normal operation • Dust build up on fans causing overheating • Small brownouts that cause the system to restart • Electric shocks that are felt when the case is touched
Above: Typical stick of RAM
Most laptop and desktop computers (dependant on age) can support a RAM upgrade, and this is one of the few computer memory upgrades considered to be worth doing. If your PC or laptop seems to be running a little sluggish ask your computer technician if you are able to upgrade the RAM. This will boost the speed of your machine and possibly provide a quick and cheaper solution to an entire system upgrade. RAM upgrades should typically cost around $80 for the RAM, plus the tech’s time to install. Upgrading the RAM means you could see a performance increase across literally everything you do, from browsing the web to using Photoshop (extra RAM can’t increase your internet connection speed but it will enable your browser to run smoother!). Hard Disk Drive (HDD) & Solid State Drives (SSD) The computer’s largest secondary storage location is its “hard drive”. This is where your programs, files and music are stored. There are two types of drives commonly available in both laptop and desktop machines, Hard Disk Drives and Solid State Drives. Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) Hard disk drives have a read/write capacity allowing data to be modified or written to, over and over. They use a mechanical arm with a read/write head to move around and
Above: Power Supply unit - an upgradeable solution to some common problems
Random Access Memory (RAM) Data in a computer’s primary storage is stored for very fast retrieval. It is called Random Access Memory (RAM) because all sections of the data can be accessed just as fast as any of the other, hence the designation Random Access. In layman’s terms, this is a special kind of temporary memory that is used by the CPU to hold information relating to the currently active processes on your computer. Consequently, the more RAM you have, the better your computer will handle all the tasks that you put it through on a daily basis. RAM is designed to be large enough to cooperate with and compliment the speed of the computer’s Central Processing Unit (CPU) and process its commands. It basically provides the CPU with a path to the data it stores. RAM storage ranges typically from 256 MB to 4 GB.
Above: The internal working parts of a Hard Disk Drive
Office: 8584 5511 Mobile: 043 88 22 681 firstname.lastname@example.org www.pipostechnologysolutions.com.au On-site computer service, sales, repairs and maintenance in the Riverland & Mallee